Fact sheets

The Communication Hub provides fact sheets on important topics about communication difficulties. More are being added each week.

You can search for key words by clicking Control and F keys or using the site Search function (top right of the page).

Read each fact sheet on the screen or download a PDF to read offline.

Easy English PDF versions are available for some fact sheets. See the index of Easy English fact sheets.

Index of fact sheets

Acquired brain injury and communication: An acquired brain injury is any damage to the brain that happens after birth. This fact sheet explores the consequences of acquired brain injuries , and provided information on how to assist people with these injuries.

Ageing and communication: Ageing is a normal process that changes your abilities throughout life. Ageing changes how you communicate.

Aphasia: Aphasia can affect different people in different ways. This fact sheet outlines possible impacts of aphasia and ways to support a person with aphasia. Aphasia Friendly Fact Sheet   

Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is when a person uses something other than speech to communicate. This fact sheet provides information about who may benefit from using AAC and how a speech pathologist can help you find the right AAC.

Autism and communication: Autism affects the way a person understands and interacts with the world. This fact sheet provides information about how some people with autism may have difficulty communicating, and how to support them. 

Cerebral Palsy and Communication: Cerebral palsy is when you have trouble controlling body movements. This fact sheet outlines the types of cerebral palsy and impact on communication.

Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS): This fact sheet describes CAS, living with CAS and how people with CAS can get help.

Cleft Lip and Palate:  A cleft is an unusual opening through the lip and into the roof of the mouth. This fact sheet explains the impact of a cleft lip and/or palate on communication, and where to seek support.

Communication after a stroke: This fact sheet explains how a stroke affects communication, how to work with friends and family, and how a speech pathologist can help.

Communication and complex trauma: Complex or developmental trauma can occur when children are abused or neglected. This fact sheet outlines some of the communication difficulties linked with complex trauma.

Communication difficulties and contact with the justice system: People involved with the justice system often have unrecognised and unmet communication needs. This fact sheet details how communication difficulties can make it hard to navigate the justice system, and how speech pathologists work within justice teams to support people with these needs.

Deafblindness and communication: This fact sheets discusses the impact of deafblindness, including the effect on everyday social interaction and communication. 

Dementia and communication: Dementia is when an underlying disease causes changes in the brain. This fact sheet outlines how dementia affects communication and impacts daily life. It suggests where you can seek support and provides tips for communicating with people with dementia.

Developmental language disorder (DLD): This fact sheet describes the impact of Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) on communication skills and common difficulties experienced by people with DLD.

Dysarthria: This fact sheet outlines the causes and types of dysarthria and how it affects communication.

Hearing loss and deafness: People can have different types of hearing loss - conductive or sensorineural. It's important to identify a hearing loss early.

  • Conductive hearing loss in children: This fact sheet provides information about the causes and effects of conductive hearing loss and poor ear health, and what you can do.
  • Sensorineural hearing loss across the lifespan: This fact sheet explains how people with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) are likely to have difficulties communicating with others as sounds aren’t reaching their brain clearly or consistently.

Intellectual disability and communication: Intellectual disability is when you have difficulty learning and thinking. This fact sheet provides information on how to manage intellectually disabilities, and provides resources for supporting people with intellectual disabilities.

Late Talkers: This fact sheet provides information about children who are late to talk and how you can support their communication.

Literacy and communication: Literacy is the skills of reading, writing and spelling, and is important for everyday activities like learning, working and communicating. This fact sheet provides information on communication and literacy milestones, and how to support a child's literacy development.

Mental health and communication needs: People with mental health needs. This fact sheet provides information on some of the types of mental illnesses and other conditions that can cause mental health challenges, the interplay between mental health and communication and swallowing disorders, and how speech pathologists can help different people at different stages of life.

Motor Neurone Disease (MND) and communication: This fact sheet describes how Motor Neurone Disease (MND) affects communication, thinking and swallowing, and provides suggestions for improving communication.

Multilingualism: Australia is a multilingual country, with around one-quarter of Australian households speaking a language other than English. These fact sheets are meant to provide information on how to support multilingualism, and how to support multilingual children with communication difficulties.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and communication: MS can affect communication in many ways, and it can affect everyone differently.

Parkinson’s and Communication: This fact sheet explores the signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease and how it affects speech.

Speech, language and literacy development in early childhood: This page provides a collection of factsheets produced by Speech Pathology Australia as well as some from the Communication Hub on the development of talking in young children.

Coming soon: Speech sound disorders

Stuttering:  Stuttering affects the flow and ease of talking. This fact sheet describes stuttering, potential impacts, and how to seek help.

Coming soon: Tongue tie in early childhood

Vision impairment and communication: Vision plays a big role in communication. This fact sheet explores how we use vision in communication, the affects that vision impairment may have, and how speech pathologist works with a person and their eye specialists to understand how their vision impairment affects their communication.

Voice - Living with a voice disorder: A voice disorder is when your voice doesn’t sound or feel like your normal voice. It is also when your voice sounds different from other people the same age, gender, and cultural background as you.